ALSO SEE: The Bible's Reliability
Article found at Wikipedia:
Hebrew Bible: The Masoretic Text is the authoritative Hebrew text of the Hebrew Bible, or Tanakh. It defines the books of the Jewish canon, and also the precise letter-text of these biblical books, with their vocalization and accentuation.The oldest extant manuscripts of the Masoretic Text date from approximately the 9th century A.D. and the Aleppo Codex (once the oldest complete copy of the Masoretic Text, but now missing its Torah section) dates from the 10th century. The name Tanakh reflects the threefold division of the Hebrew Scriptures, Torah ("Teaching"), Nevi'im ("Prophets") and Ketuvim ("Writings").
Torah: The Torah (תּוֹרָה) is also known as the "Five Books of Moses" or the Pentateuch, meaning "five scroll-cases". The Hebrew names of the books are derived from the first words in the respective texts. The Torah consists of the following five books: Genesis; Exodus; Leviticus; Numbers; Deuteronomy.
Nevi'im: Nevi'im (Hebrew: נְבִיאִים Nəḇî'îm, "Prophets") is the second main division of the Tanakh, between the Torah and Ketuvim. It contains two sub-groups, the Former Prophets (Nevi'im Rishonim נביאים ראשונים, the narrative books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings) and the Latter Prophets (Nevi'im Aharonim נביאים אחרונים, the books of Isaiah, Jeremiah and Ezekiel and the Twelve Minor Prophets).The Nevi'im tell the story of the rise of the Hebrew monarchy and its division into two kingdoms, ancient Israel and Judah, focusing on conflicts between the Israelites and other nations, and conflicts among Israelites, specifically, struggles between believers in "the LORD God" and believers in foreign gods, and the criticism of unethical and unjust behavior of Israelite elites and rulers; in which prophets played a crucial and leading role. It ends with the conquest of the Kingdom of Israel by the Assyrians followed by the conquest of the Kingdom of Judah by the Babylonians and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem.
Ketuvim or Kəṯûḇîm (in Biblical Hebrew: כְּתוּבִים "writings") is the third and final section of the Tanakh. The Ketuvim are believed to have been written under the Ruach HaKodesh (the Holy Spirit) but with one level less authority than that of prophecy. The poetic books: In Masoretic manuscripts (and some printed editions), Psalms, Proverbs and Job are presented in a special two-column form emphasizing the parallel stichs in the verses, which are a function of their poetry. Collectively, these three books are known as Sifrei Emet (an acronym of the titles in Hebrew, איוב, משלי, תהלים yields Emet אמ"ת, which is also the Hebrew for "truth").These three books are also the only ones in Tanakh with a special system of cantillation notes that are designed to emphasize parallel stichs within verses. However, the beginning and end of the book of Job are in the normal prose system.The five scrolls (Hamesh Megillot) The five relatively short books of Song of Songs, Book of Ruth, the Book of Lamentations, Ecclesiastes and Book of Esther are collectively known as the Hamesh Megillot (Five Megillot). These are the latest books collected and designated as "authoritative" in the Jewish canon even though they were not complete until the 2nd century CE.Other books: Besides the three poetic books and the five scrolls, the remaining books in Ketuvim are Daniel, Ezra–Nehemiah and Chronicles. Although there is no formal grouping for these books in the Jewish tradition, they nevertheless share a number of distinguishing characteristics: Their narratives all openly describe relatively late events (i.e., the Babylonian captivity and the subsequent restoration of Zion). Two of them (Daniel and Ezra) are the only books in the Tanakh with significant portions in Aramaic.
The Christian Old Testament features more than 24 books of the original Hebrew Bible, and deliberately in a divergent order. Moreover, there are a number of different versions of the Christian Bible, with different selections of books, as well as different ordering and naming of books, or incorporation of additional material into the books. The unifying property of the varying Christian Bibles is that all their books were originally written in Greek.Christian Bibles range from the sixty-six books of the Protestant canon to the eighty-one books of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church canon. The first part of all Christian Bibles is the Old Testament, which contains, at minimum, the twenty-four books of the Hebrew Bible divided into thirty-nine books and ordered differently from the Hebrew Bible. The Catholic Church and Eastern Christian churches also hold certain books and passages that are excluded from the Hebrew Bible to be part of the Old Testament canon.The second part of the Christian Bible is the New Testament, containing twenty-seven books originally written in Koine Greek, which discuss the teachings and person of Jesus, as well as events in first-century Christianity. The New Testament is divided into the four Canonical gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, twenty-one Epistles or didactic letters, and the Book of Revelation.
Historical outline of the Bible:
* Hebrew Scripture originals, up until a few hundred years before Christ.
* Samaritan Pentateuch, Babylonian-Jews' Bible, ancient texts of Torah
* Koran, Islam, descendants of Ishmael‘s Bible, ancient texts of Torah
* Apocrypha, from about 200-300 B.C., until about 100 A.D.
* Septuagint, Greek translation of Hebrew Scriptures and Apocrypha, circa 300B.C.
* New Testament Books and Letters Originals, first hundred years A.D.
* Origen’s writings, quoting NT sources, circa 250 A.D.
* Eusebius writes Church History, circa 325 A.D.
* Textus Sinatacus, early copy of Greek New Testament, circa 350 A.D.
* Textus Vatinacus, early copy of Greek New Testament, circa 350 A.D.
* Jerome’s Latin Vulgate of Old & New Testaments, & Apocrypha, 405 A.D.
* Codex Wizamburgenis, Greek NT, containing 1 John 5:7-8, 700’s A.D.
* Masoretic Text developed of Hebrew Scriptures, circa 1100’s A.D.
* Wyclif’s first English Bible from Jerome translation, 1382 A.D.
* Gutenberg invents moveable type for printing press, circa 1450’s A.D.
* Gutenberg Bible printed in circa 1450’s
* Lorenzo Valla writes “Annotations on the New Testament,” In 1455 A.D.
* Erasmus redoes a fresh Greek NT, beginning the Textus Receptus, 1516 A.D.
* Robert Estinne updates Erasmus, becoming the Textus Receptus, 1551 A.D.
* Martin Luther translates to German, 1522 & 1534 A.D. based on Textus Receptus.
* William Tyndale translates into English, 1526 A.D. using Textus Receptus.
* Coverdale’s Bible, using Luther, Tyndale & Textus Receptus, 1535 A.D.
* Matthew’s Bible, using Coverdale, Tyndale & Luther, 1537 A.D.
* Great Bible, Coverdale being in charge, using Tyndale, 1539 A.D.
* Geneva Bible, using Tyndale, 1560 A.D.
* Bishop’s Bible, using the Great Bible, 1568 A.D.
* Douay-Rheims Bible in Latin, update of Jerome’s Vulgate, 1582-1610 A.D.
* King James Version, using Tyndale, Textus Receptus, among others, 1611 A.D.
* English Revised Version, using KJV, 1881 - 85 A.D.
* American Standard Version, using ERV & KJV, 1901 A.D.
* Revised Standard Version, 1952 A.D.
* New International Version, using Masoretic, among others, 1966 A.D.
* New Revised Standard Version, using KJV, ERV, ASV, & RSV, 1989 A.D.
For many other subjects, visit the Seeking the Gospel Store!